Diabetes is a condition in which blood-sugar or glucose from our daily food-intake is not properly converted into energy after it reaches the blood. This unconverted sugar remains in our blood which makes the blood-sugar level higher than the normal.

Type 1 Diabetes (Juvenile Diabetes):

Type 1 diabetes is an auto immune disease, which means the bodies system for fighting infection turns against a part of the body (Pancreas). It is also called insulin dependent diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, due to some unknown reasons the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them, hence the production of insulin is affected severely, resulting in people with type 1 diabetes needing to take injections of insulin every day in order to Metabolize sugar to keep blood glucose levels to a normal range in their blood. Non access of insulin to a type 1 diabetic patient may result in the patient lapsing into a life-threatening diabetic coma also known as diabetic ketoacidosis.  Type 1 diabetes most often develops in children and young adults, but can appear at any age. It accounts for about five to ten percent of Diagnosed diabetics globally.



Type 2 Diabetes:

The most common form of diabetes is Type 2 Diabetes. Sometimes also called non-insulin dependent diabetes. This form of diabetes accounts for 90 to 95% of people with diabetes. It is associated with older age, obesity, family history, previous history of gestational diabetes, physical inactivity or ethnicity. Recently type 2 diabetes is also being increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents. In type II Diabetes, there are two symptoms, one is known as “Insulinogenic” where in the Insulin is not properly secreted by β-cells, and the other one is known as “Insulinotropic” where in the available Insulin is not properly utilized by the body.
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Gestational Diabetes (GDM):

It is the form of diabetes consisting high blood glucoselevels during pregnancy and is associated with complication in the period immediately before and after birth. It occurs more often in African American, American Indian, Hispanic American and among women with family history of diabetes. . GDM usually disappears after pregnancy but women with GDM and their offspring are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 to 10 years.

Type 1 Diabetes:

This type of  Diabetes is caused as result of the destruction of β-cells due to aggressive nature of cells present in the body. Hence β-cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed causing severe lack of insulin. This results in the body attacking and destroying its own cells in the pancreas-known as an auto immune reaction. It’s not clear why this happens, but a number of explanations and possible triggers of this reaction have been proposed. These include

  • Infection with a specific virus or bacteria,
  • Exposure to food-borne chemical toxins, and

It may also be genetic, Mal-nutrients and environment (virus affecting Pancreas). Secondly, in most of the cases, diabetes occurs because there is abnormal secretion of some hormones in blood which act as antagonists to insulin. Example- Adrenocortical hormone, Adrenaline hormone and Thyroid hormone.

However, these are only hypotheses and are by no means proven causes.


Type 2 Diabetes:

There is simply insufficient insulin available(Insulinogenic); andThe insulin that is available may be abnormal and therefore doesn’t work properly. The receptors on cells in the body that normally respond to the action of insulin fail to be stimulated by it – this is known as insulin resistance ( Insulinotropic). In response to this more insulin may be produced, and this over-production exhausts the insulin-manufacturing cells in the pancreas;

The following risk factors also increase the chances of someone developing Type 2 diabetes:

  • Hereditary or Inherited Traits:

    It is strongly believed that due to some genes which passes from one generation to another, a person can inherit diabetes. It depends upon closeness of blood relationship as mother is diabetic, the risk is 2 to 3%, father is diabetic, the risk is more than the previous case and if both the parents are diabetic, the child has much greater risk for diabetes.

  • Age:

    Increased age is a factor which gives more possibility than in younger age. This disease may occur at any age, but 80% of cases occur after 50 year, incidences increase with the age factor.

  • Poor Diet:

    Improper nutrition, low protein and fiber intake, high intake of refined products are the expected reasons for developing diabetes.

  • Obesity and Fat Distribution:

    Being overweight means increased insulin resistance that is if body fat is more than 30%, BMI 25+, waist girth 35 inches in women or 40 inches in males.

  • Sedentary Lifestyle:

    People with sedentary lifestyle are more prone to diabetes, when compared to those who exercise thrice a week, are at low risk of falling prey to diabetes.

  • Stress:

    Either physical injury or emotional disturbance is frequently blamed as the initial cause of the disease. Any disturbance in Corticosteroid or ACTH therapy may lead to clinical signs of the disease.

  • Drug Induced:

    Clozapine (Clozaril), olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel) and ziprasidone (Geodon) are known to induce this lethal disease.

  • Infection:

    Some of the strephylococci is supposed to be responsible factor for infection in pancreas.

  • Sex:

    Diabetes is commonly seen in elderly especially males but, strongly in women and those females with multiple pregnancy or suffering from (PCOS) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

  • Hypertension: 

    It had been reported in many studies that there is direct relation between high systolic pressure and diabetes.

  • Serum lipids and lipoproteins:

    High triglyceride and cholesterol level in the blood is related to high blood sugars, in some cases it has been studied that risk is involved even with low HDL levels in circulating blood.

  • Pollution:

    Air pollution or soil pollution is also causing Insulinogenic and Insulinotropic.


In both types of diabetes, signs and symptoms are more likely to be similar as the blood sugar is high, either due to less or no production of insulin, or insulin resistance. In any case, if there is inadequate glucose in the cells, it is identifiable through certain signs and symptoms.


Diabetes Type 1:

In type 1, the pancreas stop producing insulin due to autoimmune response or possibly viral attack on pancreas. In absence of insulin, body cells don’t get the required glucose for producing ATP (Adenosin Triphosphate) units which results into primary symptom in the form of nausea and vomiting. In later stage, which leads to ketoacidosis, the body starts breaking down the muscle tissue and fat for producing energy hence, causing fast weight loss. Dehydration is also usually observed due to electrolyte disturbance.


Diabetes Type 2: Increased fatigue:

Without access to their preferred fuel–glucose–the body’s cells struggle to keep up with the energy demands of keeping the body running. Clinically, this manifests as chronic fatigue or lack of energy, which is unrelieved by rest or sleep.

Polyuria (Frequent urination):

Three common symptoms of  diabetes are the 3 P’s: polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. Polyuria is increased urine production. As the blood glucose level rises, the kidneys are overwhelmed by the sugar overload and glucose spills into the urine–bringing with it a lot of water. The result is loss of large amounts of total body water through increased urine production. This first P, polyuria, causes the second P–polydipsia.

Polydipsia (Increases thirst):

Polydipsia is the medical term for excessive thirst. Because of the large volume of water being lost through the kidneys due to sugar spillage, the body is at a chronic water deficit. This leads to excessive thirst, which manifests as drinking large quantities of fluids.

Polyphagia (Increased Hunger):

Polyphagia is excessive hunger. Glucose is the primary fuel of the body’s cells; without it, the cells are starved for energy. Normally, the circulating blood brings glucose to the cells and insulin facilitate its entry. Without insulin to help glucose get into the cell, it cannot enter. Hence, in type 1 diabetes, there is plenty of blood glucose for the taking, but the cells remain starved because there isn’t enough insulin to help the glucose enter. The body responds to the cells’ starvation by sending out hunger signals. Indeed, people with diabetes often eat what seems to be excessive amounts of food. However, the food cannot be utilized normally, which leads to the next symptom–weight loss.

Weight Loss:

People with undiagnosed or uncontrolled type 1 diabetes often have unintentional weight loss. They eat sufficient calories and digest their food normally–but the glucose from the food cannot reach its final destination, the body’s cells. Without sufficient glucose to fuel the cells, the body breaks down fat and protein to provide backup fuels. The result is often unintentional weight loss, which can be quite rapid and substantial.

Blurry vision:

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia nonketotic syndrome is the condition when body fluid is pulled out of tissues including lenses of the eye, which affects its ability to focus, resulting blurry vision

Irritability:

It is a sign of high blood sugar because of the inefficient glucose supply to the brain and other body organs, which makes us feel tired and uneasy.

Diabetes normally sets in not as a disease but as a disorder for many of the reasons which we have stated in the causes of diabetes. But this disorder though not a disease, is a warning to be taken very very  very seriously. Diabetes is a get way which invites many other disease and complications. Most of the complications that occurs in diabetes is due to the continues use of Drugs .So all efforts should be made to reduce the risk of these condition by setting once life style in-order rather than usage of drugs. Due to some association a person with diabetes is likely to have high blood pressure (Hyper Tension), un-healthy cholesterol level. Hyper tension is more common in patient with Diabetes than with patient without diabetes. Diabetes patient are more likely to have heart problems and heart complications and also hardening of the arteries in both Type1 & type2 Diabetes( Diabetic Cardiomyopathy).

Disease of the Kidney is a very serious diabetic complication( Diabetic Nephrppathy). A lot of time diabetes leads to Kidney Failures. In case of Kidney failures, Dialysis is required. Kidney failures symptoms could include swelling of the feet and ankles, fatigue, itching and the color of the skin become pale. Disorder of the nerve which is called Diabetic Neuropathy is the very serious complication in Diabetes. In this disorder nerve function are reduced or distorted. Peripherals and Autonomicare the two main type’s Neuropathy. In peripherals the nerves in the toes, feet, legs, hands and arms are affected. This Neuropathy particularly affects the sensation. The Effects and Symptoms of Peripherals Neuropathy include Tingling-Weakness-Burning Sensation- loss of sense of warm and cold- numbness -Deep pain. In Peripherals neuropathy due to numbness a patient may not be aware of minor wounds blisters or infections in the legs or feet and may pose risk for ulcers   and, in usually severe cases, amputation. This in medical term is called Gangrene. Gangrene happens to diabetic patient mostly in the foot, since the diseases causes damage to the blood vessels and nerves, which result in the decreases ability to sense the trauma of the foot. In many cases there is a heavy alternation in the immense system of the patient which affects the efficiency to fight infection. In Autonomic Neuropathy the nerve that helps regulate digestion, bowel movement, Bladder, Heart and sexual function are affected. Autonomic Neuropathy can cause digestion problem like constipation, Diarrhea, Nausea, Vomiting. It may also cause Bladder infections and frequent urinations may occur. It also causes Erectile Dysfunction heart problems Heart problems. Neuropathy may mask angina, the warning chest pain for heart disease and heart attack. Patients with diabetes should be aware of other warning signs of a heart attack including

  • + Sudden fatigue
  • + Sweating
  • + Shortness of breath
  • + Nausea and vomiting

Rapid heart rates Lightheadedness when standing up (orthostatic hypotension) Controlling blood sugar is very necessary in the treatment of Neuropathy. If the blood glucose levels are controlled the progression of Neuropathy slows down. Risk factor of the heart normally increases the chances of developing Neuropathy. The necessary measure to prevent the onset of Neuropathy is to lower triglycerides in the blood vessels, lose weight, reduce blood pressure and for smokers it is very necessary to quit smoking. Blurred Or Reduced Vision Due To Retinopathy And Eye Complication One of the most complicated issues for a diabetic patient is Eye disorder known as Diabetic Retinopathy. This disorder effects adult in the age group of 20-75, which could also led to blindness. Diabetes patient are also at the risk of developing Cataracts and also Glaucoma. Retinopathy very often progress without any symptoms, which could make it spread into the Cavite of the eye or bleed into the back of eye, thus resulting in eye hemorrhage or Retinal detachment, which can again cause severe Visual loss or Blindness.

Chances Of Respiratory Infections

Diabetes patients always face a very high risk for Influenza and its complication, which also includes Pneumonia. This happens because the disorder neutralizes the effects of Proteins beings protected on the surface of the lungs. This complication can be overcome if the diabetic patient takes vaccination against influenza and Pneumococcal pneumonia.

Infections Of Urinary Tract

This complication is very significantly faced by women with diabetes. Normally women are at a higher risk for urinary tract infection, which possible gets more complicated and at times it is very difficult to treat then in the general population.

Diabetes Can Cause Depression

The risk of depression in diabetic patients is double. These increases the risk for Hypoglycemia which is the condition due to low blood sugar, these occurs when blood glucose level falls below normal. Sweating, Trembling, Hunger, Rapid Heart-beat are some of the mild symptoms of Hyperglycemia. They usually occur at moderately low and easily correctable levels of blood glucose. Neurologic Symptoms such as confusion, weakness, disorientation, combativeness are due to severe low blood glucose level. Coma, Seizure and Death can happen in rare and verse cases. For diabetic Patient Hypoglycemia which is common among Type 2 Diabetes. It is very necessary for them to recognize the symptoms to avoid the specific risk factors in both Type1 & Type2 Diabetes.

Some Other Complications

Some other conditions which increases the risk in diabetic patient is Hearing loss, Periodontal Disease, Carpal tunnel syndrome, for people who are odes  there is danger of getting nonalcoholic fatty lever disease, Colorectal cancer, Uterine cancer

Complication Due To Diabetes In Women

It is very important for women with diabetes to be aware of the type of medication they take since certain type of medication normally affects their blood glucose level. One such medication is the birth control pill, which in case of long term use of more than  two or three years will not only raise blood glucose level but will put them into severe risk of health complications. Women diabetic patients run the risk of recurrent yeast infection. Thus vaginal lubrications is decreased and in terms of sexual health there can be pain or discomfort during intercourse.

Gestational Diabetes 

which in women is the temporary diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and existing diabetes in a pregnant diabetic patient can lead to birth defects. It is very important for women with gestational or  pre exciting diabetes either  type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, while becoming pregnant  should maintain good glucose control at least  three to six months before pregnancy and at the same time monitor their blood sugar levels  regularly during pregnancy. Insulin dosing needs of type 2 diabetic women can be effective during pregnancy and doses of insulin may need to be adjusted during and following the delivery. Diabetic women run an increased risk of premature menopause which at times can be reasoned for heart complication.